Notes for Global History and Geography * HSLPS * Mr. McEntarfer

The Social Sciences
    1. Archeologist – A scientist who studies early humans by studying artifacts.
    2. Artifacts – Items made by Humans of the past, such as tools, that tell us about the people who   made them.
    3. Primary Source - A historical source that dates directly from the period in which the event took place (examples: Autobiographies, diaries and journals) A "Secondary Source" would be a historical source made after the event, such as a biography or your textbook.
    4. Historian – A scientist who studies the history of Human by studying written records.
    5. Anthropologist - A scientist who studies culture.
    6. Culture - refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activity
        significance. (SCLARGE)
    7. Cultural Diffusion – The sharing and mixing of culture throughout the world.
    8. Geography – The study of man-land relationships

Discussion Questions:
    1 How does geography affect culture?
    2 Where would an anthropologist look at to study culture in NYC?
    3 How would an historian find the truth about an historical event?
    4 How have you experience cultural diffusion?

Create a list of items that tell us about you and your culture that you would like to put in a time capsule
Describe how geography has a direct effect on your life. (song, poem, letter, picture)

The Rise of Civilization:
1. Old Stone Age or Paleolithic Era – Period of time in which humans were nomads (lived as small hunting and gathering bands migrating from place to place in search of food).
2. Neolithic Revolution – Humans discover farming and begin domesticating [taming] animals. This soon leads to civilization.
3. Civilization – characteristics SCLARGE + cities, specialized workers, record keeping and technology.

Discussion Questions:
Why did human populations grow rapidly during the Neolithic Revolution?
How did the Neolithic Revolution lead directly to the rise of civilizations?
What kind of specialized workers might an early civilization have?

Create your own civilization using the characteristics of a civilization. Describe each aspect of your ideal civilization.

River Valley Civilizations:
1. Mesopotamia – (Fertile Crescent) Land between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers where the first civilizations began. [Modern Day Iraq]
a. Sumer and Babylon – Early civilizations in Mesopotamia.
b. Cuneiform – Wedge shaped writing
c. Irrigation – Moving water inland by digging ditches/canals
d. Polytheism – Belief in many gods (Belief in one god – Monotheism)
e. Theocracy – Government ruled by religious leaders
f. Hammurabi’s Code – First written law code (Did not treat people equally) (An eye for an eye a
tooth for a tooth)

2. Egypt – Nile River [The Gift of the Nile]
a. Hieroglyphics – Picture writing
b. Pharaoh – Egyptian King who doubled as a god
c. Pyramids – Architectural wonders that served as Pharaoh’s tomb.
d. Mummification – Preservation of the body after death

3. India – Indus River Valley
a. Planned Cities (city grids and plumbing)
b. Monsoons – Heavy winds bringing rain (feast or famine)
c. Picture Writing (Not deciphered)

4. China – Huang He and Yangzi Rivers
a. Terrace Farming – Creating flat farming services on mountainous land.
b. Mandate of Heaven – Chinese rulers had a right from heaven to rule
c. Dynasty – A ruling family
d. Dynastic Cycle – A cycle that predicts the changing from one ruling families succession (start to rule)
to their demise (end)

Discussion Questions:
Why did the first civilizations develop along river valleys?
How did Chinese Mandate of Heaven differ from Egyptian Pharaohs?
How did Chinese Dynasty’s lose power?
Why was there a need for irrigation and terrace farming?
Why were Indus Valley cities probably nicer to live than other river valley cities?
What would life be like without a written language?

Create a postcard from one of these river valleys with a picture and a blurb about life there.
Plan a new city
Create a law code for this school
Create your own polytheistic pantheon of gods
Create a travel brochure on your favorite civilization

I. Classical Civilizations (Golden Ages)
1. China (Qin Dynasty 221-206 B.C.)
a. Emperor Shi Huang Di unites all of China
b. Built Great Wall (Costly and ineffective)
c. Legalism (philosophy) All people are naturally evil (strict laws)

2. Han Dynasty 206 BC – 220 AD
a. Confucianism – (philosophy) proper conduct and respect
b. Silk Road – Trade across Asia with Rome
c. Contributions – Silk and paper making

B. Greece 1750 BC – 133 BC
1. Geography – Mountainous wt many islands – led to city-states like Athens and Sparta.
2. Sparta – Military State and Dictatorship
3. Athens – Direct Democracy, Artistic
4. Hellenistic Culture – Cultural Diffusion – Alexander the Great conquered Greece, Persia, Egypt and India.
5. Contributions
a. Art and Architecture – Column/Arch – Comedy/Drama (U.S.)
b. Philosophy – Socrates (questioning spirit)
c. Democracy

C. Rome 509 BC – 476 AD
1. Geography – Italian peninsula - Central location in the Mediterranean Sea
2. Roman Republic
a. Representative Government (copied by U.S.)
b. Fell to corruption and civil war
3. Roman Empire
a. Spread over Europe, N. Africa and Asia Minor
b. Pax Romana – Roman Peace
c. Fall of Rome – Barbarian invasion, Economic crisis, gov corruption,
d. Contributions
i. Law – Twelve Tables – Modeled by U.S.
ii. Architecture – borrowed and advanced on Greek
iii. Engineering – Aqueducts

Discussion Questions:
1. Why was the construction of the Great Wall of China a mistake?
2. Why was Confucianism more acceptable to the Chinese then the philosophy of Legalism?
3. What was traded/spread along the Silk Road?
4. Where would you rather live Athens or Sparta?
5. Could the fall of Rome have been prevented?
6. Why do we learn so much about ancient Rome and Greece?

Activities: Groups create on chart paper (Draw and Teach)
1. Compare and contrast the Greek city-states of Sparta and Athens
2. Draw graphic organizers that give the major aspects of Legalism and Confucianism
3. Make a chart depicting the cultural diffusion that happened to create Hellenistic Culture.
4. Create a chart depicting the causes of the fall of the Roman Empire

II. Belief Systems:
A. Animism and Shintoism:
1. Animism: The belief that all living and non-living things have a spirit (Africa, Asia)
2. Shintoism: Belief in spirits in nature called Kami.

B. Hinduism: India
1. Brahman – Universal god made up of many gods
2. Reincarnation – Continual rebirth
3. Karma – Deeds of person that effect them in the next life
4. Dharma – Duties expected of an individual
5. Castes – Social groups Hindu’s are born into of which they can’t move out of in their lifetime.
A person may acquire good karma and be born into a higher caste in the next life.
6. Polytheistic

C. Buddhism:
1. The Buddha: Wanted to find the meaning of suffering
2. The Four Noble Truths
a. Life is suffering
b. Suffering is caused by desire
c. Eliminate suffering by eliminating desire
d. Follow the eight fold path to overcome desire
3. Nirvana: Union with the Universe
4. Similarities to Hinduism: Accept karma, dharma and reincarnation
5. Spread along Silk Road

D. Judaism:
1. Monotheistic
2. Ten Commandments (moral conduct)
3. Torah (Holy book)

A. Islam:
1. Muhammad: Prophet of Islam
2. Five Pillars of Islam – Proper conduct of Muslims
a. Belief in one god
b. Prayer five times a day
c. Help the poor
d. Fast during Ramadan
e. Visit the city of Mecca once in your life
3. Sacred Text: Quran
4. Spread through conquest and trade (Middle East and Africa)
5. Holy cities are Mecca and Medina
6. Monotheistic

Acronym: LC-BAGS - Location, Customs, Beliefs, Afterlife, Gods, Sacred Text

Discussion Questions:
1. What do the Ten Commandments and the 5 Pillars of Islam have in common?

1. Compare and contrast Shitoism with Animism
2. Interpreting documents: Which religion are they talking about and what beliefs are they extolling
3. Create your own religion

III. Expanding Zones of Exchange

A. India – The Gupta Empire
1. The Caste System – Part of Hinduism
a. Strict social structure (pyramid)
b. Karma determined caste
c. Untouchables – lowest caste (outcasts)
2. Scientific Achievement
a. Mathematics – zero and the decimal system
b. Medicine – Smallpox vaccine

B. China – Tang and Song Dynasties
1. Government used Confucian thought
2. Land reform – redistributed land from wealthy landlords to peasants
3. First paper money
4. Heavily influenced Japan
5. Technological advances: Gun Powder, Compass

C. The Byzantine Empire
1. Strategic geographic location (Gateway between east and west)
2. Capital “Constantinople”
3. Eastern Roman Empire (preserved Greco-Roman culture)
4. Influenced Russia
5. Justinian’s Code – Influenced International Laws
6. Hagia Sophia (Domed Church)
7. Orthodox Christian Church
8. Great Schism 1054 – split between Orthodox and Roman Catholic

D. African Civilizations
1. Geography:
a. Savannas (grasslands)
b. Sahara (Worlds Largest Desert)
c. Smooth coastline (few harbors)
2. Religions: Islam, Christianity and Animism
3. Kingdom of Ghana
a. Gold and Salt Trade $$$
b. High role of women
4. Empire of Mali – Capital Timbuktu
a. Mansa Musa – Powerful king who expanded his empire and adapted Islam and traveled to
Mecca (hegira or hajj)
b. Gained control of Gold and Salt trade $$$
5. East African City States
a. Mogadishu: Port – Trade (India and China) $$$
b. Swahili – Major language
c. Griots – Tales passed down to offspring

Feudal Japan
1. Archipelago – made of many (3000) islands
2. Ring of Fire – Volcano’s, Earthquakes and Tsunami’s
Geographic Impact
1. Mountainous – Difficult to farm (fishing), prevented unity
2. Island – Isolated and protected from invasion
3. Shinto – Religion – respect for nature
1. Cultural diffusion from China and Korea
2. Buddhism, Confucianism, customs and arts
Feudal Japan:
1. No central government
2. Emperor viewed as a god but little power
3. No central government - Shoguns controlled
4. Samurai warriors followed Busido Code of honor

Feudal Europe:
1. Fall of Rome – No centralized government in Europe
2. Catholic Church – Powerful and only unifying force.
3. Feudalism – (Kings, Lords, Vassals, Knights, Serfs)
4. Knights practiced a code of Chivary (Simular to Bushido)
4. Manorialism – Economic system based around the lords manor (self sufficient)
a. Serfs – (peasants) bound to the land, worked the land in exchange for protection

Crusades – Holy War
1. Pope Urban II calls on European Lords to take back the Holy Land from the Muslim Turks
2. Causes of Crusades – Wealth of the East, Sins forgiven, Power,
3. Effects of Crusades – Most successful failure: Increased trade $, New Learning, Cultural Diffusion,
Lords became more powerful.

The Plague and its Impact
1. The Bubonic Plague:
a. Highly contagious global epidemic
b. Spread by trade carried by fleas on rats
2. Effects of the Plague
a. Population losses (10,000 a day in Constantinople) 1/3 the population of Europe.
b. Economic – Trade suffered – prices and wages increased
c. Political – Feudalism declined – peasants revolted (plague did not discriminate between
lord and serf)
d. Disorder – people lost faith, turned to witchcraft, blamed the Jews

1. Watch Monty Python and the Holy Grail.
2. Create a manor
3. Math problem on the Bubonic Plague
4. DBQ Essay on the Bubonic Plague
5. Map exercise: Create a map on the Crusades.
6. Cause and Effects of the Crusades Poster. Ad

Up to Speed
Turning Point Europe:

1. Fall of Rome (476 AD) = Decentralized Feudal societies in Europe. Dark Age of strict religion and no
artistic vision or scientific improvement.

Event I.
2. Crusades (1050 – 1291) = Cultural diffusion and trade with the wealthy East. Church loses power to powerful
European Kings. Many serfs become merchants to profit from new Eastern markets.

Event II.
3. Bubonic Plague (1300’s) = Heavy population loss and breakdown of feudal system. Wages increased making survivors

Turning Point Europe:
4. Renaissance (1300 – 1500) = Trade with East + Cultural Diffusion + High wages + End of feudal system +
Decline of church power.

IV. Early Modern Era:

A. Renaissance – Rebirth – Golden Age in which there is a lot of artistic and scientific achievement.
1. Began in Italy – Italian Peninsula – central location for trade
a. Eastern trade from Crusades
b. Urban – Cities – help in spread of trade and ideas
c. Merchant Class – Medici and growth of middle class
d. Focus on Greek and Roman achievements

2. Humanism – Focus on humans and individual achievement as apposed to the focus on the afterlife that
happened during the dark ages

3. Artistic Achievements –
a. Greek and Roman style columns, arches and domes
b. Patrons – people who supported the arts
c. Realism – like a photograph
d. Perspective – 3-D
e. Less religion portrayed in art.
f. Leonardo Da Vinci – Mona Lisa
g. Michelangelo – Sistine Chapel

4. Literary Achievements
a. Shakespeare – English – wrote about humans and their joys and sorrows
b. Machiavelli – Wrote The Prince, a book that advises rulers how to get and maintain power.

5. Impact of the Printing Press – Gutenberg Press
a. Books became more available
b. Literacy increased
c. Ideas spread rapidly - Reformation

B. The Reformation: Reform = Change (the church)
1. Causes of the Reformation
a. The Renaissance – Humanism led people to question the church
b. Problems in the Church

Greed in the church – officials acting like kings fighting for power and wealth
Selling Indulgences – pardons for sins

2. Martin Luther – German Monk
a. Posted 95 Thesis’s – 95 arguments against indulgences
b. Believed Christians only reach heaven by faith in god and the Bible was the only source of religious truth not the pope or bishops.
c. Ideas spread by printing press
d. Protestant Reformation – people broke away the Catholic Church to form new churches

3. Effects of the Reformation:
a. Religious and Political Divisions –
b. End of religious unity in Western Europe.
c. Wars of Religion
d. Inquisition (religious persecution and torture to convert)
e. Anti-Semitism (hatred of the Jews) Witch-hunt’s

Up to Speed

New learning from the Renaissance combined with the desire for Eastern goods ($$$) led to the Age of Exploration.

Land taken during the Crusades that had allowed easy trade with the East was taken back by the Muslim Turks who blocked trade and overpriced goods. (Seeds of Bitterness)

New ships and Navigational equipment (compass, astrolabe) allowed sea exploration to find new route to the East Indies.

Diaz and Da Gama (Portugal) sailed around Africa and Columbus sailed west to the Americas.

Columbus a set standard for future conquistadors (conquerors) by treating the natives cruelly and guns, germs and steel ensured the natives would be overwhelmed. When native populations died off from disease the Spanish began enslaved Africans who were brought over to work their sugar plantations (large farms).

Absolutism – Government in which one ruler has absolute power

Absolutism in India: Akbar the Great – Ruled the powerful Mogul Empire in India
a. Supported land reform
b. Modernized Army
c. Promoted religious tolerance

Absolutism in Spain: Phillip II – Strongly influenced by the Catholic Church
a. Divine Right – Philip claimed that he had been given the right by God to rule.
Similar to Mandate of Heaven claimed by Chinese Emperors.

Absolutism in France: King Louis XIV (The Sun King)
a. Claimed to be gods representative on Earth (divine right)
b. Spent too much money on lavish building projects and costly wars bankrupting the country. (One of the reasons for the French Revolution)

Absolutism in Russia: Peter the Great (Czar) Czar = Caesar
a. Westernize (modernize) Russia to make it more like western country’s like England
b. Consolidated his power in Russia (largest country on Earth)
c. Created St. Petersburg, but failed to find a warm water port.

Democratic Tradition in England
a. Common Law – Laws that are the same for all people (including kings) Jury system – 12
b. Magna Carta – Nobles rebelled against King John in 1215 and forced him to sign the Magna Carta a document that limited the king’s power. Said that the King must obey the law and cannot raise taxes w/o approval
c. Parliament – representative assemble that made laws and checked the kings power especially when it
came to $$$.
d. The English Church – King Henry VIII angered over the pope not granting him a divorce embraced Reformation ideas and tried to make England Protestant.

Constitutional Monarchy in England
I. Stuart Monarchs believed in divine right and absolutism and clashed with parliament and the puritans(pilgrims)
II. Thomas Hobbes – Philosopher who wrote “The Leviathan” Believed that people were naturally selfish and needed a strong ruler to keep them in line (See Chinese Legalism)
III. English Civil War – Charles I versus Parliament and Puritans: The latter won under the command of Oliver Cromwell who had Charles I beheaded.
IV. Glorious Revolution: Overthrow of James II by Parliament who put his daughter Mary and her husband William on the throne provided that they sign in a bill of rights.

English Bill of Rights – Limited kings power
a. King must work with Parliament
b. Parliament had control of $$$
c. Stopped excessive fines and cruel and unusual punishment
d. Affirmed habeas corpus – meaning no person can be held in prison w/o being charged with a crime.
With the English Bill of Rights England became a constitutional monarchy in which legislative law making bodies limited the monarch’s power.

The Scientific Revolution: 1500s and 1600s – Changed the way Europeans looked at the world. The Renaissance had ushered
in an age of not only art and literature, but also scientific achievement in medicine, astronomy and physics.
The Reformation also opened the flood gates of questioning Church teachings, such as the Earth being the center of the universe.
1. Copernicus – scholar who first suggested the heliocentric universe (Sun centered) as opposed to the
churches teaching of an geocentric (Earth centered) universe
2. Galileo – Italian Astronomer who built upon Copernicus’s idea and proved it using a telescope. This
contradicted (went against) church teachings and they threatened him with death if he did not recant
(take it back).
3. Newton – English scholar who built upon the work of Copernicus and Galileo. He used mathematics to
prove that gravity existed and kept the planets in orbit.
4. Descartes – Human Reasoning – Challenged traditional ideas, especially those of the church.

Question: In what ways did the Scientific Revolution reject traditional authority?

New Ways of Thinking:
The Scientific Method – Method of science that relied on experimentation and observation rather than ideas
expressed by the Roman Catholic Church.

I. The Enlightenment:

A. After the Renaissance and during the Scientific Revolution thinkers and writers sought to reform
government and create more justice. Overtime concepts of democracy developed from Enlightenment ideas which
contributed to political revolutions (American, French)

Enlightenment Thinkers
1. Locke – John Locke was an English thinker who believed that all people possess natural rights of life,
liberty and property. In his opinion government was there to serve the people and if they did not protect
their rights then people had the right to overthrow it.
2. Montesquieu – (France) Baron de Montesquieu wrote that governments should be separated into three branches
(legislative, executive and judicial) He believed that separation of powers would prevent tyranny by
creating checks and balances.
3. Voltaire – French thinker who believed in free speech. He criticized the French government and the
Catholic Church for their failure to permit religious tolerance. Famous Quote, “I may not believe what
you say, but I will fight to the death for your right to say it”
4. Rousseau – French thinker: Believed that people are naturally good, but are corrupted by the evils of
society, such as unequal distribution of property. Majority should always work for the common good.
5. Mary Wollstonecraft – Wrote “A Vindication of the Rights of Women” wrote for women’s right to be educated
and enter male dominated fields such as medicine and politics.
6. Thomas Hobbes – Although he believed in absolutism (people are selfish and need strict control) he was still considered an Enlightened thinker.

Enlightened Depots (monarchs)
1. Joseph II (Austria) – Practiced religious toleration, ended censorship (controlling speech), and abolished (ended) serfdom
2. Catherine the Great (Russia) – Citizens participated in government. Promoted the education of women and religious tolerance.

Democracy and Nationalism – Enlightenment ideas inspired beliefs in personal freedom and equality. From these concepts came the growth of democracy. Nationalism (pride in ones country or group) also grew. Enlightenment ideas would contribute to the Age of Revolutions

Discussion Questions
1. How do you think the Enlightenment influenced the American Revolution? Be Specific?
2. Why might these ideas be dangerous to Absolute monarchs and the Catholic Church
3. Which Enlightenment ideas are most important to you? Explain your answer.
Age of Revolutions – Inspired by the Enlightenment

A. American Revolution – Britain’s 13 colonies in North America declare their independence in 1776. With the aid of the French American forces defeated the British and established a new nation based on the Enlightenment and British government.
1. Influence of British Traditions – Parliament (law making body) Magna Carta (document that limited
kings power) and the English Bill of Rights which influenced our own bill of rights
2. Influence of Enlightenment – Locke, Montesquieu and Voltaire’s ideas
3. Declaration of Independence – Thomas Jefferson wrote that governments rule only with the consent
of the governed, government should protect people’s natural rights and that people should overthrow
unjust governments (Locke).
4. The Constitution –
5. Government by the people
6. Separation of Powers (Montesquieu)
7. Protection of Rights – Bill of Rights: Freedom of Speech and Religion (Voltaire)

B. French Revolution
In France, economic misery, hunger and a lack of individual rights led to a revolution (revolt) against the
absolute monarchy in 1789. Periods of chaos and reform were followed by the rise of Napoleon Bonaparte.

Causes of French Revolution:

Absolute Monarchy:
• Under absolutism most people in France were denied basic rights and any say in government.
• Louis XVI believed he held the divine right to rule.
• Weak leadership: Louis XVI was indecisive and ignored many of the problems

Social Inequality
• People in France belonged to social classes called estates.
• The clergy were the First Estate; the nobility composed the Second Estate. These two classes held enormous wealth, did not have to pay taxes. The Third Estate made up 97% of French Society and included the bourgeoisie (middle class), poor city workers and rural peasants. The Third Estate resented the fact that they had to pay all the taxes and had few to no political rights.

The Enlightenment
• The Enlightenment thinkers were critical of France's absolute monarchy
• Called for democratic reforms.
• Enlightenment ideas led people to question the traditional social order.
English and American Examples
England’s Glorious Revolution provided an example of how existing authority could be challenged.
In addition, the French were inspired by the American colonies successful fight for liberty and equality in the American Revolution. Ironically Louis XVI heavily supported the American Revolution

The Revolution Begins
As conditions grew worse in France demands for reform increased. In 1789, King Louis XVI finally called the Estates General, a body made up of representatives of all three estates, into session. After this change came swiftly.

The National Assembly
• The Third Estate, the only elected group in the Estates General, declared itself the National Assembly.
The National Assembly vowed to write a new constitution for France.
The Declaration of the Rights of Man
• Abolished the privileges of the First and Second Estates
• The Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen. Based partly on the Declaration of Independence, it contained many Enlightenment ideas
Storming of the Bastille
• Working-class people, already rioting over the price of bread, stormed a prison called the Bastille on
July 14th 1789 to free political prisoners and get gun powder.
• Symbolized the beginning of the Revolution
A Limited Monarchy
• In 1791, the National Assembly wrote a new constitution to the purpose of government. It outlined:
• A limited (constitutional) monarchy
• It stated that people had natural rights and that the government must protect these rights
• It put the state under church control
European Countries Intervene
• Europe, rulers of the other nations feared these revolutionary ideas would spread into their nations.
• They threatened to intervene with military force and put the King back on the thrown of France.
• In 1792 the French decided on a preemptive strike on its enemies and declared war on Austria. Soon Prussia
and Great Britain joined the fight against France.
The Reign of Terror
• The war was going bad for France plus the civil war created paranoia.
• Radicals took control of the National Assembly, abolished the monarchy and declared a French Republic.
• In 1793 the King was executed for treason, which was followed by an era in France known as the Reign of Terror
led by Maximilien Robespierre. During this time tens of thousands of people were executed by the guillotine.
Within a year; however, the violence turned on Robespierre himself when he met the guillotine
Napoleon Comes to Power
• Beginning in 1795 a five man “Directory” held power in France. This government was weak and inefficient.
Rising bread prices brought the threat of riots.
• The people wanted strong leadership and stability so they looked to the famous military leader Napoleon Bonaparte.
Napoleon’s Achievements
• Economy – Napoleon controlled prices, supported new industry and built roads and canals
• Napoleonic Code – The Napoleonic Code was a legal code that included many Enlightenment ideas, such as the
legal equality of citizens and religious toleration.
• Military – Napoleon defeated the revolution’s enemies and established an empire

Napoleon’s Empire
• From 1804 to 1814, Napoleon ruled an empire and controlled much of Europe.
• Only Britain and Russia remained beyond Napoleons reach. Britain was safe in being an island and
having a strong navy. The Russians believed their countries large size and harsh weather would protect them.
• Napoleon’s biggest problem was the British Royal Navy who blockaded his country (blocked his ports from trading by sea) and defeated his navy twice at the Battle of Nile and the Battle of Trafalgar.
• Continental System – Napoleon closed all European ports to Great Britain and attempt to make Europe

Napoleon’s Disastrous Invasion of Russia
• People in most conquered countries look at Napoleon’s armies as oppressors. Inspired by nationalism
(national pride) and people revolted against French rule.
• In 1812 Napoleon invaded Russia. As the Russians retreated they practiced a scorched earth policy in
which they burned crops and villages leaving nothing for Napoleon’s army to use for food or shelter as
they marched further and further into the vast country. Most of Napoleons army was destroyed during the long Russian winter as they made a long retreat back to French territory.

• Discussion: How did nationalism help Napoleon to build his empire? How did it eventually lead to his defeat?
Napoleon’s Last Stand
• A year after Napoleons disastrous retreat from Russia, an alliance of Russia, Britain, Austria, and Prussia defeated Napoleon, forcing him to step down in 1814. Napoleon returned to power in 1815, but the British and Prussians defeated him at the decisive Battle of Waterloo. This battle ended Napoleon’s reign, and he lived the rest of his life in exile.
• Why do you think the French people welcomed Napoleon back in 1815?

Effects of the French Revolution
The French Revolution and Napoleon’s reign had a deep impact on France, the rest of Europe and Latin America.
• Nationalism – Revolution in France and the conquests of Napoleon inspired national pride and identity that replaced old allegiances to local authorities and monarchs. Napoleon’s conquests increased these feelings throughout Europe and his weakening of Spain led to Latin American Independence movements.
• Democratic Ideas – As Napoleon’s armies spread across Europe they also spread democratic ideas. People wanted liberty from absolute monarchs and unjust governments. Soon many other European countries would begin to struggle for equality and liberty.

Congress of Vienna

• After Napoleon’s defeat, European delegates met at the Congress of Vienna to create a peace settlement. The main goal of the participants was to restore order and stability to Europe.

Views of Participants at Congress of Vienna

Diplomats from Austria, Russia, Britain and Prussia brought differing ideas about the aims of the Congress
• Clemens von Metternich of Austria was the dominant figure at the Congress and wanted to restore Europe to the way it was before the French Revolution
• Alexander I of Russia wanted to create an alliance of Christian monarchs to prevent future revolutions
• Lord Castlereagh of England wanted to prevent France from rebuilding its military forces.
• Maurice Talleyrand of France wanted to obtain equal footing for France with the rest of the nations.

Peace at Last?
The Congress of Vienna made a lot of progress. The main goals were to create a balance of power in Europe. In
their opinion France was too strong and needed to be surrounded by countries that were powerful enough to stand up
to it. They also wanted to restore the monarchs. What they did not do was punish France by making them give up large territory or pay large sums of money to the victors.

• Discussion: Why didn’t the peace makers at the Congress of Vienna want to punish France for the Napoleonic wars?

V. The Modern Era

I. Causes for the Beginning of the Industrial Revolution

1. Agricultural Revolution – Increased food supply led to an increase in population, a large demand for
goods and a large work force.

2. Abundant Natural Resources – Britain had natural resources needed for industrialization: water power,
coal, iron ore and good harbors.

3. Political Stability – A strong government and lack of war let Great Britain focus its resources on
industrialization, economics and trade which created progress

4. Factors of Production – Britain had: Land, Labor and Capital [MONEY] all needed for industrialization

5. Technological Advances in the Textile [Clothing] Industry – Improved the quality and speed that
cotton cloth could be produced. This also boosted profits.

6. Entrepreneurs – Risk taking businessmen who took financial risks to start new businesses.

7. Building of Factories – Took production out of the home and massed it in central locations.

8. Railroads – Provided an affordable way to transport raw materials and goods to market (Steamboats)

II. Effects of the Industrial Revolution

1. Laissez-Faire Economics – Theory says that business should operate with little or no government
a. Adam Smith in his book Wealth of Nations promoted laissez-Faire ideas.

2. Big Business – With big investment opportunities came large companies

3. New Class Structure – In the middle ages there was only the very rich (nobles) and the very poor serfs (peasants)
a. Upper class were rich industrial families
b. Middle class of business people and professionals
c. Lower middle – Clerks, shop owners, office workers
d. Lower – Factory workers and peasants

4. Urbanization – People moving from the countryside to the city to look for work. (Big farmers had pushed
them off their land).

5. Working Conditions – Men, women and children worked 12 -16 hour days in dirty unsafe factories.

6. Rising Standard of Living – It is said that people ate healthier with the growing middle class, but this
did not pertain to factory workers.
7. Karl Marx writes The Communist Manifesto stating that the working class will overthrow the government

Imperialism: One nation taking over another nation or region
In the 1800’s western nations pursued an aggressive policy of expansion. European powers were motivated by economic,
political and social factors as well as a strong sense of nationalism.
I. Causes of Imperialism
A. Nationalism and Social Darwinism: Because nationalism supports the idea of national superiority,
imperialists thought they had the right to take over countries they viewed as weak. Social Darwinists
believed in
survival of the fittest and argued that it was natural for stronger nations to dominate weaker ones.
B. Military Motives: Colonies were important naval bases and supply the country with war materials
C. Economic Motives: The need for raw materials (natural resources) to supply factories and new markets
to sell their goods.
D. White Man’s Burden: Author Kipling – Poem expressed idea that white imperialists had a duty to educate people in less developed nations in western ideas and religion.
II. Geopolitics in Egypt and Persia
A. Geopolitics: An interest in taking land for its strategic location or products:
1. The Suez Canal: Britain believed that the Suez Canal, which created a shortcut to its colony in
India was a vital lifeline that should be controlled by them not Egypt.
2. Persia: With the discovery of oil in Persia in 1908 Great Britain took interest in the country
III. British in India:
A. British East India Co. – Established trading rights in India around the 1600’s and gradually took
control of the whole country. Employed Indian soldiers known as Sepoys.
B. Sepoy Mutiny – The British angered the Sepoy’s by demanding that they follow rules that were against their religious beliefs. Sepoys called for Hindu’s and Muslim’s to unite against the British. Mutiny failed but Britain took direct control over the country and changed their policies.

IV. The Scramble for Africa: As Europe was industrializing Africa was experiencing internal strife and was not industrializing. Europe’s need for natural resources and markets took advantage of this and colonized the continent.
A. The Berlin Conference: To avoid conflict Europeans and divided up the African Continent with no regard for the people of Africa.
B. Battle for Southern Africa:
1. The Zulu Empire – under its leader Shaka the Zulu’s fought against slavers, hunters and
imperialists. They fought against the Dutch and English giving the most successful effort of
Africans fighting against imperialist Europe.
C. The Boer War: The Boers were Dutch settlers in S. Africa and they came into conflict with the British
as they annexed their territories. The war left bitterness between the groups that still exist today.
D. Methods of Control
1. Direct Control: France - Ruled colony directly
a. Paternalism – Parental role (providing needs, but no rights
b. Assimilation – Attempt to make African Culture more European
2. Indirect Control: Britain: Leave some power in the hands of local rulers, but Britain is the
real power behind them
E. Menelik II – Ruler of Ethiopia who resisted European rule by playing one imperialist off another.
Defeated attempted Italian invasion. After 1910 only Ethiopia and Liberia independent.

Discussion: Which type of control (Direct or Indirect) do you believe was most effective? Explain.

V. Imperialism in China: Once the richest most powerful nation in the world China’s isolationist policies
allowed it to fall way behind Europe. This left them open to imperialism by Europe and Japan
A. Opium War and the Treaty of Nanjing: Since the British didn’t really have any trade goods the
Chinese wanted they started selling drugs (Opium – heroin).
B. The Opium War: When the Chinese tried to stop the importation of the drug Britain and China fought
the Opium War. Britain’s superior military gave them a quick victory
C. Treaty of Nanjing: Terms of the British victory
1. China gives Britain Hong Kong
2. British citizens there have extraterritoriality, which is the ability to live under their own laws.
3. Opium continues to be traded
D. Spheres of Influence: After the Opium War, other powers began to sign unequal treaties with
China and carve out spheres of influence in china which gave them exclusive trading rights in
the area
E. Chinese Reactions to Imperialism
1. The Taiping Rebellion: (1850-1864) Angry poverty stricken Chinese peasants rose up
against the Chinese government who they saw as allowing the country to be taken over.
Millions died in the rebellion and it weakened China even more
2. The Boxer Rebellion: (1900) – A group known as the Boxers attacked foreigners across
China. Japan and Europe crushed the rebellion and forced China to give up more rights.
Afterwards many Chinese called for Western Reforms.

3. Sun Yixian and the Chinese Revolution: Chinese nationalism came and Sun Yixian
called for a new reformed government with these goals:
a. End foreign domination
b. Form a representative (Democratic) Government
c. Create economic security
i. In 1911, the Chinese people ended the monarchy and Sun Yixian became
president of the Chinese Republic.

VI. Effects on the Colonies: Imperialism has a number of positive and negative effects on its colonies
A. Short term effects
1. Large number of Africans and Asians came under foreign rule
2. Local economies became dependent on industrialized powers
3. Resistant movements raged against Domination
4. Western culture spread with the disruption of native cultures
5. Famines occurred as imperialists exported crops for sale instead of feeding native peoples.

B. Long term Effects
1. Remaining western influence in imperialized regions
2. Transportation, education and medical care improved
3. Resistance movements led to nationalism
4. Most economies became based on a single crop

C. Effects on Europe and the World
1. Westerners were introduced to new cultural influences
2. Competition for empires created more conflicts
3. Industrialized nations controlled global economy

Modernization of Japan (Meiji Restoration)

I. Tokugawa Isolation – Feudal period in which Japan was isolated from outsiders.

II. Japan Forced out of Isolation: In the industrialized world trade was more important and pressure was put on
Japan to open up its ports for trade.
A. Commodore Matthew Perry entered Tokyo Harbor with a fleet of modern ships to force the issue of
trade with the U.S.
B. Treaty of Kanagawa – Shogun agreed to open Japanese ports to U.S. ships and other trading rights such
as extraterritorial and trading zones
1. Impact of Treaty of Kanagawa
a. Japanese people saw the Shogun’s agreement to this treaty as showing weakness in front
of foreigners
b. Some Japanese felt that Japan needed to modernize in order to compete with the
industrialized West
c. A rebellion overthrew the shogun and restored power to the Emperor who launched
Japan on the path to industrialization
C. Fear of ending up like China – Japan feared that they could end up like China and be carved into
spheres of influence and unable to stand up to the industrialized western nations
III. Meiji Restoration (1868-1912) – Period in which Japan modernized and industrialized under Emperor Meiji
A. Borrowing from the West – The Japanese sent diplomats all over the world to learn about western
government, economics, technology and customs. They borrowed what they liked for their own country
such as the
strong German government and the U.S. factory system
B. Military Power: By 1890 Japan had a modern army and navy that could compete with any in Europe
1. Sino-Japanese War – In 1894 China and Japan went to war over their ambitions in Korea. Japan
won and gained territory and trading rights from China
2. Russo-Japanese War – (1904) Japan and Russia go to war over Korea. Japan defeats Russia and
takes over Korea.

IV. Dependence on World Market – Japan had few natural resources and depended heavily on trade. In years to come it
would use imperialism to gain resources.

Essential Questions:
1. How did 200 years of isolation hurt Japan
2. Why do you think the Shogun signed the Treaty of Kanagawa?
3. What steps did Japan take to modernize during the Meiji Era?
4. How might Japan’s military victory over Russia change the view of social-Darwinists in Europe?
5. Japan, an island nation with few natural resources had industrialized rapidly in the 1800’s. How did geography
affect Japan’s decision to follow a policy of Imperialism?

Causes of World War I - MAIN

Militarism – The glorification and build up of military power. This led to fear and distrust among nations and created
an arms race. One rivalry was between the British and Germany in which they competed to build the largest navy.

Alliances – Increased tensions and suspicions led nations to form alliances. Nations agreed to ___________ each other
in case of attack. In 1914 Europe there was the Triple Alliance [Germany, Austria and Italy] and the Triple Entente
[_______________, _______________, _______________]

Imperialism – Competition for colonies (especially in Africa) among ___________, _____________ and _____________.
(Review Berlin Conference)

Nationalism – can bring people together, but also can be a source of rivalry and conflict.
National pride between nations caused them to compete for _____________, ________________ and ________________.
For example Serbia and Austria competed for influence in the Balkans

The Balkan Powder Keg – A small spark in this region was likely to cause an explosion in Europe. The country of
Serbia (an ally of Russia) had nationalistic ambitions to create a large Slavic state in the Balkans. However
this plan of Serbian expansion was opposed by Austria (an ally of Germany). When a Serbian nationalist assassinated
Arch Duke Ferdinand of Austria chain reaction began that started world war.

1. Austria blamed Serbia for assignation and made demands
2. Serbia refused
3. Austria declares war on Serbia
4. Russia (Serbia’s ally) prepares for war
5. Germany (Austria’s ally) declares war on Russia
6. Germany declared war on France an ally of Russia
7. Germany invaded Belgium so that its army could invade France more easily
8. Britain declares war on Germany

Create Graphic Organizer Web
Title “Who was to Blame for World War I?”
Subtopics: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Britain, France, Russia.

WWI: An Industrialized War
Trench Warfare: Troops dug trenches along the battle front to avoid bombs and machine gun fire. Very little ground
was gained and massive lives were lost when soldiers charged these dug in positions.
New Weapons:
Inventions Description Use in WWI
Machine Gun Rapid fire stream of bullets

Tank Armored vehicle that travels on tracks and can cross all kinds of land
Underwater ship that can launch torpedoes. Used by Germany to destroy enemy ships

Airplane Propeller driven plane with machine gun or bombs

Caused choking, blinding or sever skin blisters. Masks were needed to protect soldiers
Lobbed into enemy trenches, killing or disabling enemy troops

Entry of the United States

The U.S. was neutral, but two events are said to bring it into the war.
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare – Germans would attack any enemy ship w/o warning. Sinking of the Lusitania.
Zimmerman Telegram – German letter to Mexico asking them to ally with them if the U.S. entered the war on the side of
the Allies. Promised them U.S. land: ___________ ___________ ___________.

Russian Withdrawal
Low morale in Russia contributed to a revolution in 1917. The leader of the successful revolution signed a peace
treaty with Germany and took Russia out of the war.

Costs of the War
In late 1918 an Armistice (agreement to stop fighting was signed) was declared. The economic and human costs of the
war were massive

Effects of War
- 9 million people died
- 17 million people were injured
- Factories, farms and homes destroyed
- Nations had huge debts

Treaty of Versailles:
League of Nations created to keep the peace. (_______ would not join)
Treaty demanded that the loser (Germany) must
1. Disband its army and navy
2. Pay the winners war debt (War reparations)
3. ____________________
The Treaty only made the Germans angry (including a man named Adolf Hitler who would start
World War II 20 years later.